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At first, ice cream was simply as its name suggests: cream, perhaps sweetened, set in a pot nestling in ice to cool it down.But before long recipes became more sophisticated, and the technique of periodic stirring to prevent the formation of ice crystals was introduced, and ice cream was set on a career of unbroken popularity.As early as 1821 we find mention of "ice-cream gardens' in New York....Since introducing ice cream to Europe in the Middle Ages, Italy has never relinquished its lead in theis field, and over the centuries the manufacture of ice cream has in many countries been the province of Italian emigres." ---An A to Z of Food and Drink, John Ayto [Oxford Univeristy Press: Oxford] 2002 (p.Hayward, new edition [John Murray: London] 1883 (p. Beeton's statement reads thusly: "Do ladies know to whom they are indebted for the introduction of ices, which all the fair sex are passionately fond of? Hess observes: "the first American recipe that I know of that features vanilla on its own is one for vanilla ice cream in Mary Randolph's The Virginia Housewife, 1824; similar recipes had, however been appearing in France, and Jefferson brought back one in 1784, showing once again how tht printed word lags behind usage." Source: Martha Washington's Booke of Cookery, transcribed by Karen Hess [Columbia University Press: New York] 1981 (p.--To Catherine de' Medici." (General Observations: Ices, last paragraph). 13) [About vanilla.] Our survey of 18th-early 19th century English and American cookbooks confirms fruit ice creams were probably the most popular.George at Windsor in May 1671 One Plate of Ice Cream'. Although its adoption then owed much to French contacts in the period following the American Revolution, Americans shared 18th century England's tastes and the English preference for ice creams over water ices, and proceeded enthusiastically to make ice cream a national dish." ---Oxford Companion to Food, Alan Davidson [Oxford University Press: Oxford] 1999 (p.392-3) "The first substantial piece of writing on ice cream was an anonymous 84-page manuscript entitled L'Art de faire des Glaces which, through watermarks in the paper, has been dated "circa 1700." It is a "how to" work of some sophistication, giving detailed instructions for the preparation of such delights as apricot, voilet, rose, chocolate, and a caramel ice creams and water ices.
Although frozen desserts were becoming common in regal circles, not until 1670 when the Cafe Procope opened in Paris did "iced creams" and sherbets spread to the masses." ---The Great American Ice Cream Book, Paul Dickson [Atheneum: New York] 1972 (p.
" European introduction myths & legends early American flavors first USA ice cream parlor?
1893 NYC favorites 1920s ice cream specials Augustus Jackson Howard Johnson's 28 flavors carton shrinkage Food historians tell us the history of ice cream begins with ancient flavored ices.
44-45) [Note: David also investigates legend regarding Procope's opening the first ice cream parlor in Paris.] Mr.
Hayward's quote: "We are unable to fix the precise time when [ices/ice cream] there began to be cultivated with success, but it met with the most enlightened encouragement from the merchant-princes of Florence, and the French received the first rudiments of the science from the professors who accompanied Catherine de Medicis to Paris...*It is clearly established that they introduced the use of ices into France. Coryat, in his 'Crudities Gobbled Up,' writing in the reign of James 1., says that he was called 'Furcifer' by his friends, from his using their 'Italian neatnesses namely forks.'"--- The Art of Dining or, Gastronomy and Gastronomes, A.